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11Managers as Motivators Managers and leaders Lawler 1986 are responsible for maintaining the morale of workers Successful leadership requires four elements The need for vision and the ability to diagnose what needs changing and decide how they would like the future to be shaped They have to be strategists so they are aware as to what steps must be taken and can plan progression towards the overall vision An effective leader must also have determination through the implementation of his plan and they must be resourceful in overcoming setbacks However these three characteristics are nothing without the commitment of others To commit others the manager must be able to communicate his vision effectively and keep his employees interest through motivating He should sustain belief by example An effective leader will motivate others In order to this a manager will need to take into account what actually motivates people Three main theories arise from the study of management employee relationships Low morale needs to be tackled first managers have certain responsibilities to there workers for maintaining morale In the case of BT the managers need to implement basic motivational theories in order to lift morale off being rock bottom Management to do this should use three principals of motivation 12 A group of theories explain motivation in terms of the satisfaction of need Maslow McClelland Hertzburg these are usually perceived as fundamental needs relating to survival together with more sophisticated needs connected to ones relations with others and the fulfilment of personal potential Unsatisfied needs can effectively override a given task in the work place as the employee is prioritising satisfying this need rather than concentrating on the task ahead Motivation occurs from a variety of needs of differing proportions An employer such as BT must realise that work must often compete with family and other social groups as it is not the only vehicle leading to the
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