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I A Brief Definitive History Affirmative Action in the United States consists of the active efforts that take into account race sex and national origin for the purpose of remedying and preventing discrimination Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 the federal government requires certain businesses and educational institutions that receive federal funds to develop affirmative action programs Such policies are enforced and monitored by both The Office of Federal Contract Compliance and The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EEOC Lazear 37 The most noteworthy criticism of affirmative action is that of the white male population who insists that such programs are forms of reverse discrimination In contrast to their view the United States Commission on Civil Rights argued until 1983 that only if society were operating fairly would measures that take race sex and national origin into account be preferential treatment After the commission on civil rights was reorganized in late 1983 however it took the opposite position By January of 1984 it approved a statement that racial preferences merely constitute another form of unjustified discrimination In recent years however affirmative action has continued to grow and the number of controversies surrounding its existence is consistently augmented In 1978 in University of California Regents v Bakke the US Supreme Court held 5-4 that fixed quotas may not be set for places for minority applicants for medical school if white applicants are denied a chance to compete for those places The court however did say that professional schools may consider race as a factor in making decisions on admissions More recently than the Regents decision in United Steelworkers of America V Weber 1979 and Fullilove v Klutznick 1980 the court continued to hold for affirmative action II An Introduction to the Controversy The transformation of affirmative action over the years is generally considered a negative and socially unfair one Although the original
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