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The number of vehicles in road keeps on increasing every year leading to an increase in the number of road accidents According to Indian road accident statistics drivers fault is an important factor in most of the accidents It accounts for 785 of total accidents 1 Accidents involving heavy commercial vehicles such as buses and trucks accounted for 285 of total accidents 2 As per the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NHTSA statistics during the year 2007 3 rear end collision accounts for 302 of all reported collisions in the United States of America These accidents can be prevented by implementing an active safety system in vehicles While developing a new safety system economical constraints should also be taken into account A collision warning and collision avoidance CWCA system is one such active safety system at reasonable costThe function of a collision warning system is to alert the driver in case of a potential collision It allows the driver to respond to the situation with enough time to avoid the collision The main function of the collision avoidance system is to take control of the brake system when the drivers action alone is not helpful in avoiding the collision A considerable amount of work has already been done in developing CWCA algorithms Doi et al 4 developed a rear-end collision avoidance system capable of working on a straight as well as curved sections of highway which predicts the impending collision by comparing a critical headway distance minimum distance required between host vehicle and lead vehicle to avoid collision with a measured headway distance The maximum possible deceleration of the host vehicle the distance between the lead vehicle and the host vehicle the relative velocity and the assumed lead vehicles deceleration are used to calculate the critical headway distance Fujita et al 5 proposed a collision mitigation algorithm along with the collision warning CW algorithm Seiler et al 6 and Brunson et al 7
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