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At times great thinkers philosophers and educators of a given society tend te precipitate and ingenually costruct beliefs or theories about existing citizens in their society These theories are usually based on specific traits usually psychological that certain people in their society may express The studies and investigations of great thinkers such as Sigmund Freud Carl Rodgers and BF Skinner attempt to solidify in terms of applicability theories related to the guidancecounseling situation in modern school systems The examination of my thesis will include consideration of the purpose of guidance in schools by each theorist and will attempt to describe how pupil personnel services might be organized if one were to be consistent with each theorists concepts as applied to the counseling realmAs Mortensen states in short Freud represents the psychoanalytic approach Rodgers represents the humanistic or person-centered approach and Skinner represents the behaviorist approach 112 Accordingly the goals and techniques in the guidancecounseling milieu are strongly contrastive among the three theorists In addition the three approaches are obviously more individually effective in dealing with appropriate problems For example Freuds psychoanalytic approach would be most effective in counseling a student with family problems rather than a student who merely wishes technical advice on a career choice Taking Freud first we find that although he wrote in a letter to Jung Psychoanalysis is in essence a cure through love Bettelheim 32 the fact is that the psychoanalyst or the counselor basing his or her guidance on psychoanalysis is the ultimate definer of every aspect of the encounter with the patient client or student Bettelheim correctly argues that Freud has been misunderstood by many translators and therefore unfairly lableled as an inhumane tyrant desiring primarily to control human lives and define reality in his own terms 134 Accordingly one might expect the counselor using his theories to try to dictate to the student seeking guidance While this may be a harsh conclusion to Bettelheim it is an
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