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Graphics are pictures still and moving such as illustrations photographs animations and films In 1963 Ivan Sutherland a graduate student at MIT created the first graphics program for small computers Sutherlands Sketchpad which ran on a minicomputer and used a light pen to draw lines on a screen was the first of a long line of graphics software programs that have revolutionized commercial and to some extent noncommercial illustration and design Early Painting and Drawing Programs In the early days of personal computing software developers created two types of programs for producing computer graphics Bitmap-based or raster image-based graphics programs commonly called painting programs allowed users to create pictures by changing the pixels or picture elements on the screen from white to black Object-based or vector-based graphics programs commonly called drawing programs allowed users to construct pictures by creating editing and combining mathematically defined geometric shapes Eventually color and grayscale versions of both painting and drawing programs were developed Early painting programs were great for free-form sketching but because of their low resolution corresponding to the limited dot-per-inch dpi resolutions of computer screens they tended to produce work with a jagged or pixelated look along slopes or curves Developments in Painting and Drawing Programs The pixelization problem in painting programs was resolved in two ways First as the RAM and storage capacities of personal computers grew raster image-processing programs were created that could handle images with a greater number of dots per inch Todays high-end raster image programs can handle full-screen images at 2400 dpi or higher in 167 million different colors Another solution to the pixelization problem was the development of antialiasing whereby pixels along the edge of an image are progressively lightened or darkened to produce the effect of a smooth edge The difficulty of producing irregular forms in drawing programs was resolved by the introduction of bezier curves A bezier curve is a straight line or a curve that is described
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