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Historical artifacts dating back to several early civilizations suggest that the idea of cosmos was valued among many cultures Since the emergence of agriculture humans began to live in small societies Eventually these small societies gave way to larger more sophisticated and complex cultures Duiker and Spielvogel 7 New ideas gradually developed within these societies thereby leading to the establishment of cultural religious and ethical standards Analysis of excerpts from historical manuscripts that deal with the concept of afterlife in early Mesopotamian Egyptian and Aryan civilization suggest that different cultures had diverse views about cosmos and mankinds relationship to it Excerpts from The Epic of Gilgamesh an epic that originated in Mesopotamian civilization portray the Mesopotamian perception of afterlife Life after death is revealed as dark dull and dreary When an individual passes away his soul enters the palace of Irkalla the Queen of Darkness Overfield 9 This palace is described as a dwelling where people sit in darkness dust is their food and clay is their meat Overfield 9 The inhabitants of this palace are clothed like birds with wings for covering they see no light they sit in darkness Overfield 9 The kings of once powerful kingdoms now stand like servants to fetch baked meats in the house of dust to carry cooked meat and cold water from the water skin Overfield 9 Overall the Mesopotamian notion of afterlife is portrayed as negative There are also no references to heaven or any other type of paradise where a soul may rest thus leaving a dying person without any hope Hence afterlife is a concept that a Mesopotamian did not look forward to while he or she alive The Egyptians viewed the concept of afterlife from an entirely different perspective They believed that a soul had a chance to become an eternally blessed soul Pyramid Text are collection of incantations written on the walls of the burial chambers of King Teti gives a description
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