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Black nationalism is the name given to revitalization movements among black Americans emphasizing their African origins and identity their pride in being black their desire to control their own communities and sometimes the desire to establish a black nation in Africa or some part of the United States The exact origins of black nationalist movements are lost in the largely unwritten history of blacks in early America but it is clear that such movements began as protests against the brutal and dehumanizing conditions of SLAVERY A few records indicate that early African protest against slavery conditions had overtones of black nationalism Organized black nationalist movements appear to have begun with Paul Cuffe 1759-1817 a black sea captain Between 1811 and 1815 he made the first attempt to establish a black American colony in Africa transporting several dozen people to Africa Early in the 20th century W E B DU BOIS developed a sophisticated rationale for a Pan-African movement that would join blacks in America and Africa But not until after 1910 did a mass movement emerge with black nationalism as its central theme The leader of this new movement Marcus GARVEY recruited thousands into his Universal Negro Improvement Association UNIA Its goals included a black nation oriented toward Africa but controlled by black Americans The UNIA developed the first major black capitalist enterprises including restaurants grocery stores hotels and a steamship line Because of antagonism from whites and mismanagement at the top this movement failed but it was soon followed by a number of Africa-oriented movements the most important of which was the Nation of Islam known inaccurately as the Black Muslims Marcus Garveys Back to Africa movement developed the spirit of Ethiopianism to its fullest extentsince the white people have seen their God through white spectacles we have only now started out late though
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