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Cross-cultural communication means communication between people from different cultures We use the term cross-cultural communication instead of intercultural communication because it is too restrictive This term implies a comparison between cultures for example different styles of leadership More precisely cross-cultural communication is communication between people whose cultural perceptions and symbol systems are distinct enough to alter the communication event The labels race ethnic groups and co-cultural communication are three forms of cross-cultural communication The learners of foreign languages have to study cross-cultural communication because aWe are living in a changing world Changes in technology travel economic and politics immigration patterns are so great that we have to increasingly communicate with people from different cultures The cross-cultural communication will continue to grow in both frequency and intensity bDiverse cultural backgrounds influence communication in many ways ones cultural backgrounds and experiences help shape how one sends and receives messages cLinguistic studies in the field of pragmatics have reminded us awareness of the degree to which cross-cultural communication is affected by culturally related factors dNonverbal communication such as gesture posture and facial expression is of great importance Nonverbal elements are proved to be the most culturally influenced part of behavior 20Pragmatic Failure in Cross-Cultural Communication 201 Pragmatic Failure Pragmatic failure was first proposed by Thomas 19839 to refer to the inability to understand what is meant by what is said In cross-cultural communication people form different cultural backgrounds speak the same language but their communication may break down due to pragmatic differences in ways of thinking rules of speaking social values educational backgrounds lexical connotations and other factors The term cultural mistakes used by Hu Wenzhong 1985 to refer to language and behavior that is inappropriate or unacceptable to most native speakers and he considers that cultural mistakes are often worse than linguistic ones and likely to create ill feeling between native speakers and Chinese speakers of English As Thomas points out speaker who is not
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