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The father of cognitive psychologyArea of Development and Theory Cognitive Development Constructivist TheoryKey Concepts Discovery Learning Categories Coding System Conceptual Change Spiral Curriculum Discovery Learning The acquisition of new information or knowledge largely as a result of the learners own efforts Discovery is contrasted with expository or reception learning It is an important instructional tool of the constructivist classroomI Discovery Learning is how we make sense of the worldA Categories A grouping of related objects or events A category is both a concept and precept It classifies things as equalB Coding System A Brunerian concept refers to a hierarchical arrangement or related conceptsII Schools should foster the discovery method using the following stepsA Formulating and clarifying a question or problemB Collecting examples making relevant observationsD Devising and conducting tests experiments and other observations in order to confirm or refute hypothesisE Applying extending generalizing and going beyond the new informationIII Teachers should apply the Discovery Learning Method because it is a Constructivist Approach therefore this method is reflective active and discovery orientedIV Four conditions that facilitate Discovery LearningA Set A predisposition to react to stimulation in a given mannerB Need State Bruners expression describing the arousal level of an organismC Mastery of Specifics A Brunerian term for the learning of details Mastery of relevant specifics is necessary for acquiring concepts and discovering relationships among themD Diversity of Training Bruners expression relating to his belief that exposure to information under a wide range of circumstances is conducive to discovering relationships among conceptsOther Concepts Related to Discovery LearningI Conceptual Change The concept in which the ideas that challenge the learner contain problems and puzzles and ultimately result in a reorganization or knowledgeThere are three levels of learning that facilitate conceptual changeA Enactive learn by doing in terms of their personal actionsB Iconic learns by seeing pictures models and concrete mental imagesC Symbolic learn by using verbal symbols in terms of language II Spiral Curriculum A term for a
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