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Fiber Optic Cable How it works Fiber optics use light rather than electricity to transmit data In a fiber optic system electricity is converted into light by a LED Light-Emitting Diode or laser and sent down a run of fiber optic cabling While in the cable the light bounces off an inner metallic shield called cladding This cladding keeps the light contained along the fiber optic strand On the other end of the fiber optic run a receiver converts the light signal back into electricity Generally fiber optic cables are made of three layers the jacket the cladding and the core The core is made of germania-doped silica which contains and reflects light The surrounding cladding is made of pure silica and reflects the light that travels down the core The jacket is made of an acrylate coating and protects the cladding and core and allows for handling of the cable without touching the glass Types of fiber Singlemode Singlemode fiber is a single tiny strand of fiber optic glass usually 71 or 85mm in diameter that is used in telephone applications cable television or campus backbones It only allows a single ray of light to pass through the fiber at a time This type of cable lends itself to very long runs Multimode Multimodes fiber optic core is much larger usually 625mm in diameter than that of the singlemode fiber This type of fiber can accommodate many rays along its core simultaneously lending itself to voice and data applications Telephone companies typically use this type of fiber because it can accommodate hundreds of phone conversations along one fiber Simplex Fiber A cable with a single strand of fiber Duplex Fiber A cable with two strands of fiber bound together in separate jackets Single-mode or multimode Single-mode fiber gives you a higher transmission rate and up to 50 times more distance than multimode
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