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1 Introduction Management as a self-conscious activity is a creation of the nineteenth century although systematic consideration of the elements that constitute it can certainly be dated to the late eighteenth century Richard L Daft 2000 pg7 described Management as The attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning organizing leading and controlling organizational resources 2 Classical Management Perspective Richard L Daft 2000 pg45 defined that The classical perspective on management emerged during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that emphasized a rational scientific approach to the study of management and sought to make organizations efficient operating machines This perspective contains three subfields each with a slightly different emphasis scientific management - Frederick Winslow Taylor 1856 - 1915 bureaucratic organizations - Max Weber 1864 - 1920 and administrative principles - Henri Fayol 1841 - 1925 21 Scientific Management Richard L Daft 2000 pg47 defined that Scientific management emphasized scientifically determined changes in management practices as the solution to improving labor productivity Frederick W Taylor acknowledged as the father of scientific management He is known for defining the techniques of scientific management that is the study of relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase efficiency He was the first to attempt to systematically analyze behavior at work His model was the machine therefore his ideas are often characterized as the machine model of organizations Each task was broken down to its smallest unit to identify the best way to do each job Then the supervisor would teach it to the worker and make sure the worker did only those actions essential to the task 22 Bureaucratic Organizations Richard L Daft 2000 pg47 defined that Bureaucratic organizations emphasized management on an impersonal rational basis through such elements as clearly defined authority and responsibility formal record keeping and separation of management and ownership
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