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Chapter 13 Organic and Biological Compounds1Most compounds that contain the element carbon are organicIe More than 90 of all compounds are organic compounds2The word organic comes from the word organismIe At one time scientists assumed that only living organisms could produce organic compounds1The chemical formula to methane is CH4Ie Found in natural gas used by most people2Hydrocarbons containing only single-bounded carbon atoms are called saturated hydrocarbonsIe Is joined by single covalent bonds3Hydrocarbons such as ethane and ethyne that contain at least one double or triple bond between carbon atoms are called unsaturated hydrocarbonsIe Fats and oils are classified as unsaturated hydrocarbons1Another hydrocarbon also has the same chemical formula as butaneIe The chemical formula for butane is C4H102Isomers are compounds that have identical formulas but different molecular structures and shapesIe There are thousands of isomers in hydrocarbons1An aromatic compound is a compound that contains the benzene ring structureIe The chemical formula for benzene is C6H62Knowing the structure of benzene can help you picture hundreds of different aromatic organic compounds1A substituted hydrocarbon has one or more of its hydrogen atoms replaced by atoms of other elementsIe A compound used in dry cleaning tetrachloroethene is a substituted hydrocarbon2The prefix tetra means four and chloro- refers to chlorine3An alcohol is formed when -OH groups replace one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon1Biomass refers to all animal and plant material both dead and aliveIe Wood leaves animal and human wastes and food are all biomassBiogas is mainly methane just like natural gasBibliographyPhyscial Science Merrill
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