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Origins of mitochondria and chloroplast Both mitochondria and chloroplast have an inner and outer membrane each a phospholipid bilayer with a unique collection of embedded proteins The inner membrane of the mitochondria is convoluted with infoldings called cristae which gives it a greater surface are to enhance productivity of cellular respiration it also encloses the mitochondrial matrix and contains built in enzymes that make ATP The inner membrane of the chloroplast encloses the granum structures and stroma from cytosol The majority of metabolic steps for both organelles occur in the mitochondrial matrix and stroma Mitochondria are about 1 to 10 m long and the chloroplast are about 2 m by 5 m in size Chloroplasts and Mitochondria generate ATP by the same basic mechanism chemiosmosis An electron transport chain assembled in a membrane translocates protons across the membrane as electrons are passed through a series of carriers that are progressively more electronegative Built into the same membrane is an ATP synthase complex that couples the diffusion of hydrogen ions down their gradient to the phosphorylation of ADP Some of the electron carriers including quinones and cytochromes are very similar in chloroplasts and mitochondria and the ATP synthase complexes of the two organelles are also very much alike But there are noteworthy differences between oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria and photophosphorylation in chloroplast In mitochondria the high energy electrons dropped down the transport chain are extracted by the oxidation of food molecules Chloroplast do not need food to make ATP their photosystems capture light energy and use it to drive electrons to the top of the transport chain In other words mitochondrial transfer chemical energy from food molecules to ATP while chloroplast transform light energy into chemical energy It is an important difference The special organization of chemiosmosis also differs in chloroplast and mitochondria The inner membrane of the mitochondrion pumps protons from the matrix out to the intermembrane space which then serves as a
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