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Physical Mental Emotional and Social Development in ChildrenInfants grow at a very rapid rate during the first one and a half years of life Development is not only physical but mental emotional and social This development provides a strong background for further development in life Physical development refers to a babys increasing skill at utilizing various body parts During development there are three basic developmental rules Rule one states that babys develop in the head region first followed by the upper body followed by the trunk portion and lastly the legs and feet For example a baby can hold up their heads first before they can grab an object with their hand The second rule refers to motor skills Motor skills are the childs ability to control movement The two basic classifications in motor skills are large motor skills and fine motor skills Large motor skills deal with all the large muscles whereas fine motor skills deal with smaller muscles in the body The third developmental rule is brain development As the brain develops a child responds more and more to sight and sound which prepares them for further development Langer 172 At birth an infants vision is limited by the immaturity of the brain beyond 7-12 inches an infants world is a total blur Infants eyes unlike ours do not contain a fovea Langer 86 A fovea is the area of the retina in which the images are focused Their eye movements are very slow and are jerky at times They are able to see color but prefer the sharper contrast of black and white Although babies cant see small objects that are far away they can see large objects that are up close An adults perfect vision is estimated to be 2020 and infants vision is estimated to be around 20600 Langer 204 By the end of the first year a babys vision nearly matches that of a grown adult Langer 204
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