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HOW ARE BATTLES WON The logical attempt to define strategy in War comes to us from many resources There are many defining examples of teachings of the art of war In this compilation I have chosen to take a look at the American war in the 1860s from a European perspective of the very early days of war Machiavelli The Roman armies were a carefully selected militia whose soldiers came from rural areas The Roman armies were of moderate size and foot soldiers were their backbone the value of the cavalry in a battle was very limited although they were useful in reconnoitering and in preventing supplies reaching the enemy The American armies were of large size and foot soldiers formed the backbone of the armies In the early days of war a 20000 man army was the rule and very seldom were battles fought with numbers much larger than this In the Thirty-Year War there was one battle fought with armies numbering over 100000 men When looking at Machiavelli the student of history must realize that his ideas of war were based on his thoughts of Roman Warfare with small armies with very limited artillery Machiavelli stated that Artillery is of greater use to the attacker than to the defender particularly in the siege of a town and since the great strength of the Roman army was its capacity for attack artillery might be used to reinforce the Roman methods of warfare It does not invalidate them With this in mind and looking at various Civil War actions the student will remember such actions as McClellans march up the Virginia Peninsula--gaining ground to support artillery for the all-out assault on Richmond In this McClellans hopes were dashed primarily because General Lee did not wait for the all-out destruction of not only his base of operations but also his army In the War
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