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The purpose of this essay is to provide an analysis of whether thecontents of the memorandum reflect the actual foreign policy aims ofRussia with regard to the countries of North Sudan and South Sudan Alsoto be assessed is the extent to which the other four permanent membersof the UN Security Council - the US China Britain and France - as wellas the non-permanent ones would be persuaded by the memorandumsfindings The context for this is that Russia enjoys good diplomaticrelations with North Sudan and South Sudan and in common with mostother states backed full independence for South Sudan Buttraditionally Russia has allied itself with North Sudan and thisrelationship has been reciprocated through it being the biggest armssupplier for the Khartoum government However in supporting South Sudans independence Russia has agreedthat the country met the conditions of statehood as set out in theMontevideo Convention of the Rights and Duties of States which includehaving a permanent defined territory a population occupying thisterritory and a government that has the capacity to govern domesticallyas well as conduct foreign relations Furthermore under theConstitutive Theory of Statehood South Sudan has been recognised byother states and it also fulfils the Declaratory Theory of Recognitionthat it exists as a state in reality Being given approval by the UnitedNations was probably the most important international imprimatur forSouth Sudans statehood giving it recognition by the vast majority ofthe worlds states Finally North Sudan with which the South has had ahistory of uneasy relations which have often resulted in outright warhas also given de facto recognition of the independence of its newneighbour As a result Russia has little reason to withhold its consentand in fact it was among the first states to formalise diplomaticrelations with the new state by establishing an embassy in South Sudanscapital JubaRussia continues to loom in the background as regards the issue of oilIt has cemented its links with North Sudan not just through arms dealsbut by being a principal recipient of
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