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In order to fully understand Aristotles views on a natural system it is necessary to first explain some general principles of his philosophy It is in his work the Categories that Aristotle presents the concept of substance a concept which will serve as the foundation for much of his philosophical system Substance for Aristotle is not a universal but rather it is the particular substance is not a such but a this Thus substance is neither in nor is it said of a subject as are qualities Rather it is that which makes the subject numerically one it is that which makes the subject the individual Substance is an individual man and or an individual horse Aristotle still classifies universals as substances for they define what constitutes the substance and without these universals a substance would not be what is There are four characteristics of substances a substance is a this not a qualification or a such which stresses individuality a substance has no contraries to it there are no opposites of a substance a substance does not admit more or less there are not degrees of a substance and a substance can admit contraries while remaining numerically oneIn the Physics Aristotle addresses that which constitutes Natural Objects as substances He states that all Natural Substances consist of both form and matter Matter is that out of which the substance arises and form is that into which the matter develops In building a table the wood nails etc are the matter and the idea of a table what the end result will be is the form according to Aristotle Matter and form are inseparable from each other there is no form apart from concrete things Aristotle explains that allsubstances contain within themselves the origin of their change and movement He continues by stating that the change which can occur is due to four possible natural causes formal cause material cause efficient cause and final
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