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What were the bases of Civilization in America Revised 10901 Migration of the European and Asian Homo sapiens across the tundra land bridge presently the Bering Strait between Alaska and Siberia is said to be due from increasing population pressuresp 198 and the pursuit of mammoths mastodons and other large game Civilization in America was separate from the classical world of Asia North Africa and southern Europe and progressed on its own without the help of any previous civilization The ancient huntersthe first evident humans around 9500 BCEbasis of social organization revolved around kinship a basis commonly present in many future groups The seclusion and isolation of these groups have some believing the people of America developed agriculture domestication of some animals weaving ceramics a number system religious ideas complex societies and urbanization Environmental change disappearance of large game and stabilization of the sea coast became a few underlying factors for the cultures transition to agriculture and a sedentary way of life created dependency on agriculture beginning a process resulting in 3 systems complex social political and economical Sedentary populations who could produce surpluses attained the status of a complex society forming a base for hierarchical societies Chieftains or rulers over large territories indicated civilizations with highly developed religious and political systems and monumental architecture p203 The Olmecs the mother civilization of Mesoamerica p205 developed cultural tradition urbanism complex religion the beginning of writing and so much more influencing many expanding societies Teotihuacan the first classic city contained a large urban center population of 200000 residential districts religious artifacts and a political empire which covered parts of Mexico The Mayan culture outputting 50 city-states triumphed greatly with much pride in their complex calendar and system of sophisticated writing Mayan gods held importance in society retaining women rights and crafts with metallurgy have been found in Yucatan shrines Rulers exercised civil and religious power elitesscribes or priestsaided in self-mutilation rituals human sacrifice and
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