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Word Count: 903
Our categorizations of nature are based on domination The world is divided ecologically into predator and prey or bigger more advanced animals versus smaller simpler creatures One category is superior which dominates the second category which is inferior But this dualism based on dominance represented by the demand of a preferred human order upon nature is in fact contradictory As an obvious examplecarnivorous plants like the Venus flytrap consumes insects and the bigger and more taxonomically advanced the prey the more mysterious nature becomes The following examples demonstrate the reversal of the food chain Frogs eat flies But one day in August 1982 at a small pond in Arizona thousands of spadefoot toads were emerging to adulthood from their tadpole stage Among them were toads that were dead or dying The predator was a large insect larva identified as that of the horsefly Tabanus punctifer The enormous larvae are bigger than toads and to think that flies can eat toads is amazing The fly larvae force themselves into the mud rear end first until their front end bearing the mouthparts lies flush with the surface The larvae then catch the toads by hooking their pointed mandibles into the hind legs or belly and them dragging the toad part way into the mud The larvae then suck the toad dry by ingesting blood and body fluid only Unusually large insects like the praying mantis fee on small invertebrates like frogs small birds and mice Decapod crustaceans like lobsters crabs and shrimp eat snails Two scientists Amos Barkai and Christopher McQuaid did research on rock lobsters and whelks snails of middling size around two islands Marcus and Malgas off the coast of South Africa On Malgas Island the rock lobsters ate mollusks mostly mussels and several species of whelks Twenty years ago rock lobster was common on both islands During the 1970s lobsters started disappearing from Marcus Island this was probably due to periods
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