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The study of the way people think and behave is called psychology The field of psychology has a number of sub-disciplines devoted to the study of the different levels and contexts of human thought and behavior In early psychology the different perspectives are functionalism Gestalt behavioral psychodynamic humanistic physiological evolutionary cognitive and cultural and diversity The structuralism approach which according to the textbook is the earliest approach in modern psychology attempts to identify the basic elements and structure of conscious experience Wundt believed that the essence of all total adjustments of the organism was a psychophysical process an organic response mediated by both the physiological and the psychological He pioneered the concept of stating mental events in relation to objectively knowable and measurable stimuli and reactions Wundt perceived psychology as part of an elaborate philosophy where mind is seen as an activity not a substance The functionalism approach focuses on the purposes of consciousness what the mind does and why and how that information could be put to practical use It implies that human mental states are not restricted to human biological systems such as brains James idea was to study the causes conditions and immediate consequences of our actions and how we could benefit from the knowledge attained to adapt to our environment The Gestalt perspective focuses on our perception of a whole being different from our perception of the individual stimuli If a cause and its effect are taken as separate events we see that differently than if the entire happening cause and effect included is viewed as a whole The behavioral perspective focuses on the importance of learning and understanding how various behaviors occur In other words it acknowledges observable behavior and emphasizes the learned nature of behavior Ivan Pavlov while studying dogs started to notice the different types of behavior in dogs they started to salivate at the sight of food or heard the keys when the door was about to
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