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Intelligence Intelligence is a controversial topic in that it is not a precisely defined concept While most define intelligence as problem solving and tangible and thus measurable knowledge it is clear that across cultures we cannot possibly define it as such We need to consider intelligence across culture across emotion physicality and mental attributes and across cultures Thus we need to see intelligence as multi-faceted functional and culturally defined Weston 1998 pg 355 Because of the many cultures across the globe we cannot expect criteria for intelligence to be the same In-depth knowledge of calculus would not be considered intelligent in an African hunting community in the same way as the ability to track animals would not do well in an urban area But all intelligence is there to accomplish a goal to ensure survival and success In light of this we can perceive intelligence as the ability to learn and apply this knowledge solve problems and obtain something which is valuable to a particular society To acquire an understanding of intelligence we need to take a look at the view points of the different perspectives in psychology The Psychometric approach tries to establish the correlation of certain aspects of intelligence and thus tries to predict success in one variable by success on another This is called factor analysis and is defined by a statistical system which identifies common factors that could affect performanceega good vocabulary could be and usually is a factor in verbal reasoning ability Charles Spearman applied this to intelligence tests and suggested that children who do well academically tend to score higher in arithmetic ability general knowledge and vocabulary He called this general intelligence g-factor and used it to explain why most sets of intellectual assessment tended to correlate To further classify this the theory of fluid intelligenceGf as the processing unit and crystallized intelligenceGc as the memory store were developed He used the
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