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TelecommunicationsThe transmission of words sounds images or data in the form of electronic orelectromagnetic signals or impulses Transmission media include the telephone using wireor optical cable radio television microwave and satellite Data communication thefastest growing field of telecommunication is the process of transmitting data in digitalform by wire or radioDigital data can be generated directly in a 10 binary code by a computer or can beproduced from a voice or visual signal by a process called encoding A data communicationsnetwork is created by interconnecting a large number of information sources so that datacan flow freely among them The data may consist of a specific item of information agroup of such items or computer instructions Examples include a news item a banktransaction a mailing address a letter a book a mailing list a bank statement or acomputer programThe devices used can be computers terminals devices that transmit and receiveinformation and peripheral equipment such as printers see Computer Office SystemsThe transmission line used can be a normal or a specially purchased telephone line calleda leased or private line see Telephone It can also take the form of a microwave or acommunications-satellite linkage or some combination of any of these various systemsHardware and SoftwareEach telecommunications device uses hardware which connects a device to the transmissionline and software which makes it possible for a device to transmit information throughthe lineHardware Hardware usually consists of a transmitter and a cable interface or if the telephone isused as a transmission line a modulatordemodulator or modemA transmitter prepares information for transmission by converting it from a form that thedevice uses such as a clustered or parallel arrangement of electronic bits ofinformation to a form that the transmission line uses such as usually a serialarrangement of electronic bits Most transmitters are an integral element of the sendingdeviceA cable interface as the name indicates connects a device to a cable It converts thetransmitted signals from the form required by the device to the form
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