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Word Count: 412
Besides the direct political motives of imperialism-the desire to strengthen national security by strategic naval bases such as Cyprus and the Cape or to secure additional sources of manpower as the French sought in Africa or to enhance national prestige as the Italians did in Libya there was a medley of other considerations which in varying proportions entered into the desire for colonies One was the activities of explorers and adventurers men like the Frenchmen Du Chaillu and De Brazza in equatorial Africa Or the Welshman Henry Morton Stanley in the Congo basin or the German Karl Peters in east Africa Prompted by a genuine devotion to scientific discovery or a taste for adventure or a buccaneering love of money and power as was Cecil Rhodes in South Africa-men of initiative and energetic enterprise played an important personal part in the whole story Christian missionaries played their part too in the spread of colonialism The most famous was the Scot David Livingstone A medical missionary originally sent to Africa by the London Missionary Society he later returned under government auspices as an explorer to open a path for commerce and Christianity When he had disappeared for some years in quest of the source of the Nile Stanley was sent to find him and duly met him in 1872 on the shores of Lake Tanganyika When Livingstone died in Africa in 1873 his body was taken to London under naval escort to be buried in Westminster Abbey as a great national hero But Livingstone was only one among many and France even more than Britain sent organized missions into Africa to convert the heathen to ChristianityThe Catholic missions of France under the Third Republic were exceptionally active and provided two thirds some forty thousand of all Catholic missionaries They were spread all over the world including the Near and Far East and in 1869 Cardinal Lavigerie installed only the year before in the see of Algiers
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