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Word Count: 525
What distinguishes the Baroque in Italy from the earlier Renaissance in outlook art and architecture What are all the characteristics as reflected in the paintings of Caravaggio Cite specific works The first of these was the emergence of the Counter-Reformation and the expansion of its domain both territorially and intellectually By the last decades of the 16th century the refined courtly style known as Mannerism had ceased to be an effective means of expression and its inadequacy for religious art was being increasingly felt To counter the inroads made by the Reformation the Roman Catholic Church after the Council of Trent 1545-63 adopted a propagandistic attitude in which art was to serve as a means of extending and stimulating the publics faith in the church To this end the church adopted a conscious artistic program whose art products would make an overtly emotional and sensory appeal to the faithful The arts present an unusual diversity in the Baroque period chiefly because currents of naturalism and classicism coexisted and intermingled with the typical Baroque style Indeed Carracci and Caravaggio painted respectively in classic and realist modes A specific Baroque style of painting arose in Rome in the 1620s and culminated in the monumental painted ceilings and other church decorations of Carracci Reni Guercino Cortona Baciccio Pozzo and countless lesser artists The greatest of the Baroque sculptor-architects was Bernini who designed both the Baldacchino with spiral columns above the altar of St Peters in Rome and the vast colonnade fronting the Vatican Seventeenth-century Baroque architects made architecture a means of spreading faith in the church and in the state Baroque palaces expanded to command the infinite and to display the power and order of the state Baroque space with directionality movement and positive molding contrasted noticeably with the stagnant stable and defined space of the High Renaissance and with the frustrating conflict of unbalanced spaces of the preceding Mannerist period Baroque space invited participation
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