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DISCUSS BOTH THE ETHICAL METHODOLOGICAL DIFFICULTIES WHICH HAVE BEEN ENCOUNTERED WHENINVESTIGATING OBEDIENCE When subjects are given orders or instructions to carry out by somefigure of authority The measure of obedience is the extent to which a subject is preparedto carry out orders which go against individual values and beliefs When considering how todevise obedience studies many factors must be taken into account concerning moral issuesalong with the methods used Due to the nature of obedience studies both are controversialto some extent Below some of these issues are discussed Perhaps the most controversialexperiment with regard to obedience studies is Stanley Milgrams obedience to authorityconducted in 1963 Because of the ethical controversy surrounding Milgrams experiments itseems only natural that there would be critics and advocates Baumrind 1964 for exampleclaimed that it is unacceptable to place innocent and naive subjects under great emotionaldistress in Milgrams quest for knowledge To many pressuring individual subjects to thepoint of uncontrollable seizures cannot be justified How much subsequent psychologicaldamage was sustained by some if any is still unknown but Milgram defends himself onseveral points He says that he expected that most would disobey sooner than they did Whythen did he continue to test over 2000 subjects in similar experiments reasonably surethat the results would average out similarly in the final analysis Re-uniting the subjectteacher with the unharmed learner whilst being reassuring in the aftermath does notexcuse the traumas to which the subjects were often exposed during the experiment RogerBrown 1986 said Milgram showed great concern for the welfare of his subjects Milgram himself states that in a follow-up survey almost 80 of the subjects were eitherglad or very glad in having participated Rosnow 1978 claimed that this type of experimentmay in fact help people to re-assess their own values and beliefs emerging as betterpeople It could also be said that as more people become aware of Milgrams results theywill become more aware of a duty to question figures of authority if
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