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The Evolution of Lake Champlain Basin A billion years ago Lake Champlain and all of North America was covered by huge glaciers The air was rich in oxygen because of photosynthesis done by plants The Adirondacks Mountains Mountain-building events made the then 20000 feet Adirondack Mountains Minerals such as garnet anorthosite and diopside came from metamorphic rocks The Iapetus Ocean What is now the Champlain Valley started to rift 600 million years ago It turned into the Iapetus Ocean with rapidly evolving life including trilobites cephalopods bryozoans gastropods and primitive corals The Green Mountains The Iapetus Ocean closes completely and the land masses on both sides collide forming the Green Mountains One theory that explains why theyre called that is because of a mineral called chlorite on the rocks The Champlain Thrust The Champlain Thrust is a huge slice of a rock that broke free and was forced upward above younger rocks during the formation of the Green Mountains The Great Hiatus The Great Hiatus was the period between the formation of the Green Mountains 400 million years ago and the recent glaciation We know little about the time but we do know that a lot of erosion was going on and low rounded hills formed over the surface in the Champlain Valley The Brandon Lignite The Brandon Lignite is a large deposit of iron-rich clay and lignite Scientists think the area was much warmer 25 million years ago because they found the remains of plant seeds and fruit Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics is the study of the folding and faulting of the earths crust When the earths plates move they can create earthquakes or leave depressions in the earth that fill with sea water The Pleistocene - The Age of Glaciers The Pleistocene Period lasted from 25 million years ago to about 10000 years ago The Champlain Basin was heavily affected by glaciers especially in the valley between the Adirondacks and the Green Mountains
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