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Causes of Poverty to Women The feminisation of poverty has meant a higher percentage of women than men are likely to experience poverty throughout their lives TUC Society views a husbands income as primary to be shared amongst the family and a wifes role as domestic worker and carer Brown 1983 The male control of economic power within the family can cause unequal resource access with acute cases resulting in a wifes poverty when her needs are sacrificed to provide adequate distribution for the children Glendinning 1992 Labour market gender divisions exist as employment policies regard women as secondary earners encouraging traditional low paid service sector work and training Part time and irregular employment are usually the only accommodating options for a womans family role providing substandard pay and an average income of two thirds that of her male counterpart Typically male lead Trade Unions exacerbate these inequalities by fighting less for womens employment Brown 1983 Probable disruption by home responsibilities and community care expenditure cuts retain women in the home and hinder potential employment equality Brown 1983 As social security is based on the principle of continuous remunerated employment labour market inequalities result in women paying lower National Insurance contributions than the threshold leading to penalisation or dis-entitlement to SS except the means tested minimum which if qualify are likely to receive lower benefit than their male counterparts Glendinning 1992 Female social security benefits are inadequate in both the private and public sectors as assumptions are structured upon male full time employment with a husband providing replacement Lewis 1983 Male financial dependency by a loan parent of whom 90 are female can entail difficulties of rarely adequate maintenance enforcement Glendinning 1992 Loan parents are typically unable to meet childcare costs to enable availability for full time employment leading to NI disqualification and a lack of incentive to work as childcare costs can equal income making state benefits preferential Brown
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