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The field of psychology that deals with the ability to solve educational problems and to improve educational situations is the field of educational psychology Educational psychology is sometimes referred to as an applied field meaning one in which the objective is to solve immediate practical problems James 29 The beginnings of educational psychology were initiated by Aristotle in his formulation of the laws of association These laws similarity contrast and contiguity supplemented by frequency are the beginnings to an experimental science Piaget 9 As the science began to develop the educational psychologists did little more than administer mental tests which started with the Stanford-Binet test IQ test Today the science has been expanded to include counseling students teachers administrators and parents in an effort to help make the school environment one which is most effective in promoting learning As an example if a student in school commits a disciplinary action instead of being indiscriminately punished that student would be sent to see the school psychologist to find out the causes of the students misbehavior and deal with them accordingly Frandsen 92 Though studies of educational surveys there were nine major factors that increased learning These nine factors can be placed into three groups student aptitude instruction and psychological environments Student aptitude includes 1 ability or prior achievement as measured by score on educational test 2 development as indexed by chronological age or stage of maturation and 3 motivation or self-concept as shown by personality tests and students perseverance on learning tasks Instruction can be thought of as 4 the amount of time students engage in learning and 5 the quality of the instructional experience Psychological environments include 6 the curriculum of the home 7 the morale of the classroom social group 8 the peer group outside school and 9 the amount of leisure-time television viewing These are the factors that influence academic achievement and behavioral learning AAE 66
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