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In particle physics an attempt to explain all of the fundamental forces and their relationships between elementary particles in single framework was accomplished in theory by the gut by the grand unification theory In relation to physics these forces can be described as fields that mediate interactions between separate or distant objects These theories such as eltromagnetism and general relativity started to attempt the unification of theories however they would emerge as the fundamental basics of the gut Or the grand unification theoryAt sub atomic levels these fields are described as quantum field theories which started the ideas of quantum mechanics In the 1940s the ideas quantum electrodynamics QED the quantum field theory of electromagnetism became fully developed In QED charged particles interact as they emit and absorb photons minute packets of electromagnetic radiation in effect exchanging the photons in a game of subatomic catch This theory has become the prototype for theories of the other forcesDuring the 1960s and 70s particle physicists discovered that matter is composed of two types of basic building block--the fundamental particles known as quarks and leptons The quarks are always bound together within larger observable particles such as protons and neutrons They are bound by the short-range strong force which overwhelms electromagnetism at sub nuclear distances The leptons which include the electron do not feel the strong force However quarks and leptons both experience a second nuclear force the weak force This force which is responsible for certain types of radioactivity classed together as beta decay is feeble in comparison with electromagnetismAt the same time that the picture of quarks and leptons began to crystallize major advances led to the possibility of developing a unified theory Theorists began to invoke the concept of local gauge invariance which postulates symmetries of the basic field equations at each point in space and time Both electromagnetism and general relativity already involved such symmetries but the important step was the discovery that a
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