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Word Count: 492
In Europe in the Middle Ages theres a great confusion and overlapping of powers because the feudal system provided many powerful men the king or the emperor and the feudatories so there were many men who could comminate punishments even the capital one which was applied for crimes such as murder theft sacrilege and high treason sometimes respecting the laws but often in arbitrary way It was applied through beheading hanging drowning and torture till death There was a long time in the European history when death penalty was applied for delicts that are now considered of opinion The fusion of politic and religious power caused for many centuries the condemnation of people who were against the Church ideas in all ranges political scientific etc and also there were many women condemned and burned like witches Over the centuries death penalty was still in use in many countries and new death instruments were frequently added For example in the France of the Ancienne Regime it was executed in different and terrible ways according to the social class of the culprit and the committed crime the hanging was for the countrymen the beheading for the nobles the wheel for the heaviest crimes the stake for the religious crimes the quartering for the crimes against the State During the Revolution on Guillotins proposal different penalties were abolished and guillotine was introduced for everyone Death penalty remained in the largest part of legal systems until the end of XVIII century when the attempts to oppose it started to be many and important The most famous denunciation of the unfairness of death penalty comes from the Italian jurist Cesare Beccaria who in his literary work Dei Delitti E Delle Pene 1764 sustaining its ineffectiveness as a prevention way for crimes and laying stress on the possibility of juridical errors suggested its abolition Beccarias work obtained great attention also outside Italy and influenced in a decisive way the movements for
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