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The impression that I have gotten from the latest magazines and websites about microchips is that the chip is definitely the mile stone in computer hardware Computer chips make up our everyday lives enabling many of the things we use like coffee machines microwaves ATMs and computers work and are reliable for use These chips are no larger than a fingernail and are getting smaller every other year and are amazingly capable of holding over 15 million transistors The computer chips history is very short and many of us including myself do not remember a time when we were without integrated circuits The things that we do remember are the advances and theories major companies Professors and engineers discover The first computers used components called vacuum tubes These vacuum tubes functioned as electronic switches The tubes worked fine except that they were not reliable Because of the big structure vacuum tubes would generate intense heat which caused many of the components to deteriorate and consumed enormous amounts of power A smaller flow of electrons was sought after and what they found were transistors Transistors changed the way computers could and would be built The integrated circuit was invented by Jack Kilby an engineer at Texas Instruments and independently by Robert Noyce of Fair Child Semi-conductor Then integrated circuit or chip combined multiple transistors into a small silicon disc This silicon chip was the backbone of the development of smaller systems Computer chips have a phenomenal rate of performance over time and was considered as a revolutionary device According to Moores Law The number of components in a single chip doubles every two years Computers have since become cheaper and their capabilities have increased exponentially over time A Computer chip is a tiny piece of material that contains a complex electronic circuit and are made by placing and removing thin layers of insulating conducting and semi-conducting materials in hundreds of steps The bodies of most chips
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