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The purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of the influence that different sport surfaces have on injury It will help one understand how specific sports surfaces effect athletes while listing the advantages and disadvantages of such sports surfaces to the runner Running surfaces cause many sport and exercise injuries because they are ever present and because of the frequency of contact between the shoe and the surface Changes in surface characteristics can alter not only the ground reaction force but also the activation patterns of the major leg muscles Sports surfaces tend to have both positive and negative effects on the performer A change of surface may necessitate a modification of technique The change of force acting on the performer alters the type of injury Characteristics of Sport Surfaces Sport surfaces are often complex structures with several layers all of which contribute to the overall behavior of the surface Friction and traction are characteristics that are directly related to the behavior of surfaces for sport and exercise and have the greatest association with injury The friction or traction force between a shoe or other object and a surface is the force component peripheral to the surface In friction of smooth materials the force is generated by force locking and the maximum friction force depends on the coefficient of sliding friction u between the two materials in contact Traction is the term used when the force is generated by interlocking of the contacting objects such as spikes penetrating a Tartan track known as form locking Bartlett 1997 This friction or traction force is particularly important in running for which the coefficient of friction or traction should exceed 11 and for changes of direction such as swerves and turns FerrisLiangFarley1999 For sports surfaces the coefficient of friction or traction should be independent of temperature weather and ageing When friction or traction is too high or too low injury is more
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