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In the languages of the western world based on the Latin Cyrillic and Greek scripts there is no difference between how text is stored for data processing and how it is presented on a display or a printer The text is read on horizontal lines from left to right the lines progress from top to bottom and the characters are stored in a manner identical to how they are presented Not all the languages of the world have these characteristics In this document complex-text languages are defined as those languages for which the text has a different layout when presented from when it is stored for data processing The term layout which is equivalent in this context to the term format refers to the shape of the characters and the direction of portions of the text An additional characteristic of complex-text languages with the exception of Vietnamese is the fact that they do not have upper case or lower-case characters Typical complex-text languages are those with a bi-directional script Usually they are written from right to left with some portions of text such as numbers and embedded Latin-based text written from left to right Bi-directional languages include the languages of the Middle East and Africa Arabic Hebrew Urdu Farsi Yiddish and so on Other complex-text languages include some languages of Asia that do not limit their encoding to a double-byte scheme Thai Lao Vietnamese Korean and so on There is nothing in these languages themselves that is more complex than in the Latin-based languages they are special only in that the presented text does not necessarily look identical to the text as stored Though the term complex is used to describe the text of the bi-directional and some other Asian languages enabling a program to work in these languages is relatively simple once the peculiarities of these languages are understood Layout Transformations and Related AttributesTo enter process and present a text in a complex-text language
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