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IN THIS meeting of the Southern Historical Association great emphasis has been placed upon a re-examination of numerous phases of our history relating to the Civil War While several papers have dealt with certain forces which helped bring about the Civil War none has attempted a general synthesis of causes This synthesis has been the task assumed by the retiring president of the AssociationBefore attempting to say what were the causes of the American Civil War first let me say what were not the causes of this war Perhaps the most beautiful the most poetic the most eloquent statement of what the Civil War was not fought for is Lincolns Gettysburg Address That address will live as long as Americans retain their love of free government and personal liberty and yet in reassessing the causes of the Civil War the address whose essence was that the war was being fought so that government of the people by the people and for the people shall not perish from the earth is irrelevant Indeed this masterpiece of eloquence has little if any value as a statement of the basic principles underlying the warThe Civil War was not a struggle on the part of the South to destroy free government and personal liberty nor on the part of the North to preserve them Looked at from the present perspective of the world-wide attempt of the totalitarians to erase free governments and nations living under such governments from the face of the earth the timeworn stereotype that the South was attempting the destruction of free government and the North was fighting to preserve it seems very unrealistic and downright silly In the light of the present-day death struggle between freedom and the most brutal form of despotism the Civil War as far as the issue of free government was involved was a sham battle Indeed both northern and southern people in 1861 were alike profoundly attached to the principles
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