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Descartes method of questioning what is real is a very important aspect of the world of science I will show how this method of philosophy is crucial to the studies of biology Descartes said that the only time that something is not doubted is when it is clear and distinctly true This is the difference in science between theory and fact In order for something to be clear and distinct it must be a fact DNA was discovered on April 251953 by James Watson and Francis Crick They discovered that it was a double helix made up of 5 carbon sugars phosphates and 4 different nitrogenous basesThis is where Descartes comes in to play There was much questioning whether DNA even existed and if it did what was it like DNA is only about 10 nanometers wide so it is extremely small and easily overlooked There was much research done to try to figure out the structure of DNA molecules Chargraff came up with the theory of there being 4 different nitrogenous bases in equal quantities purines and pyrimidines This was eventually proven true but at the time was not definite Descartes would not be satisfied with this because it wasnt clear and distinct fact yet Different theories came up about the actual structure of the molecule Originally Watson and Crick believed that the molecule could be single stranded and at one point they also believed that it might be triple stranded This still was only theory and not clear and distinct so their research continued Rosalind Franklin was an assistant on the DNA project She was an X-ray crystallographer which is someone who takes pictures of strands of DNA Much research went on till one day a picture was taken to show the B form of DNA which gave Watson and Crick the information that they had needed This picture showed that DNA was double stranded and that it was in the shape of
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