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Origins of Mongols Archaeological evidence shows early Stone Age human habitation in the southern Gobi between 100000 and 200000 years ago By the first millennium BC bronze working peoples lived in Mongolia With the appearance of iron weapons by the third century BC the inhabitants of Mongolia had begun to form tribal alliances and to threaten China The origins of more modern inhabitants are found among the forest hunters and nomadic tribes of Inner Asia During most of recorded history this has been an area of constant ferment from which emerged numerous migrations and invasions to the southeast to the southwest and to the west By the eighth century BC the inhabitants of much of this region evidently were nomadic Indo-European speakers either Scythians or their kin Also scattered throughout the area were many other tribes that were primarily Mongol in their ethnologic characteristics History After the migration of the Jurchen the Borjigin Mongols had emerged in central Mongolia as the leading clan of a loose federation The principal Borjigin Mongol leader Kabul Khan began a series of raids into Jin in 1135 In 1162 Temujin the first son of Mongol chieftain Yesugei and grandson of Kabul was born Yesugei who was chief of the Kiyat sub clan of the Borjigin Mongols was killed by neighboring Tatars in 1175 when Temujin was only twelve years old Temujin did not die Temujin by the age of twenty had become the leader of the Kiyat sub clan and by 1196 the unquestioned chief of the Borjigin Mongols Sixteen years of nearly constant warfare followed as Temujin consolidated his power north of the Gobi In 1206 Temujins leadership of all Mongols and other peoples they had conquered between the Altai Mountains and the Da Hinggan range Temujin took the honorific chinggis meaning supreme or great creating the title Genghis Khan in an effort to signify the unprecedented of his power He took personal control
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