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The Over-Specification of Courage Right in the middle This is the place Aristotle respects In the book Nichomachean Ethics Aristotle does his best to explain what the many virtues of the world are To Aristotle the virtue courage is a mean with respect to fear and confidence68 but more specifically a man who fearlessly faces a noble death and any situations that bring a sudden death69-70 This is certainly consistent with his philosophy that all virtues are simply the correct middle between any excess and deficiency There do however arise many complications with the definition of courage What may seem like courage might not be Consequently Aristotle sets the bounds that courage must result from reason must not be confused with duty and is only measurable in unexpected situations If outside these bounds then actions cannot be classified courageous Though I feel that Aristotle has for the most part hit true courage on the button he is wrong to label no action courageous if it is not in his bounds The trouble with Aristotles analysis is that it destroys courage by ruling out any situation where it possibly could exist by not considering different degrees of emotions that lead to different human decisions and by not allowing for any form of partial courage Aristotle sufficiently argues that the qualities similar to courage arent true courage Duty of citizens is the first of Aristotles criticisms Citizen soldiers are prompted by a sense of shame72 or a sense of fear72 and fight either because their laws and customs will stigmatize them72 or they are forced by their superiors72 Next experience is criticized because experienced soldiers give the impression of being courageous to others who do not know what is happeningbut when they are inferior in men and equipmentthey are the first to run away73 Temper is also criticized because though it brings about the ability for men to turn on those who have wounded themthey are not
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