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Word Count: 765
Physical changes in the land soil water and airassociated with industrialization directly and indirectlyaffect the biological environment Direct impacts includedeaths of plants animals or people caused by miningactivity or contact with toxic soil or water from mines Indirect impacts include changes in nutrient cycling totalbiomass species diversity and eco-system stability due toalterations in groundwater or surface water availability orWater resources are particularly vulnerable todegradation even if drainage is controlled and sedimentpollution reduced Surface drainage is often altered atmine sites and run off from precipitation may infiltratewaste material leaching out trace elements and minerals Trace elements leached from mining wastes and concentratedin water soil or plants may be toxic causing diseases inpeople and other animals who drink the water eat theplants or use the soil These potentially harmful traceelements include cadmium cobalt copper lead ironGroundwater may also be polluted by mining operationswhen waste comes into contact with slow-moving subsurfacewaters Surface-water infiltration or groundwater movementthrough mining waste piles causes leaching of sulfidematerials that may pollute groundwater The pollutedgroundwater may eventually seep into streams to pollutesurface water Groundwater problems are particularlytroublesome because reclamation of polluted groundwater isAn example of an area where trace elements haveaffected a large part of the population is in Japan Anincreased amount of cadmium was released into the ZintsuRiver Basin near the end of World War I At this time theJapanese industrial complex was damaged and goodindustrial-waste disposal practices were largely ignored Mining operations for cadmium dumped mining wastes intorivers The cadmium influx occurred in estuarine waters andin sediments after the intake of industrial wastes Farmers then used this contaminated water downstreamfor domestic and agricultural purposes This intake ofcadmium by human beings caused a chronic disease within theJapanese population known as Itai-Itai The name Itai-Itaisuits the disease because it is Japanese for ouch-ouch Itai-Itai is painful and crippling It attacks the bonescausing them to become so thin and brittle that they breakMany solutions and experiments have been tried to findreason and absolution of cadmium
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