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In the middle of the the nineteenth century the Hawaiian Kingdom was a sovereign nation the Kingdom had a monarchy that dated back to the English explorer Captain Cooks arrival in the eighteenth century By the end of the century United States influence would continue to grow from American influence within the kingdom to active involvment in the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of a new government The role that the United States played was critical to the study of history during that period in HawaiiThe relations of the Hawaiian kingdom to the United States intimate from the arrival in the islands of American missionaries and the first ships of the Pacific whaling fleet in 1820 were drawn immensely closer by the reciprocity treaty of 1875 That treaty admitting free of duty to each country the principal products of the other and pledging the Hawaiian Government not alienate any port or territory in the kingdom to any other power virtually made Hawaii an economic colony of the United States The treaty was thought by many as a step preliminary to the political annexation which had been a subject of negotiation between the two governments The treaty of 1875 was to run for seven years terminable by either party at one years notice By a new treaty negotiated in 1884 and ratified in 1887 the treaty was extended another seven years with one major provision not included in the 1875 treaty This key provision stated that the US should enjoy the exclusive right to use Pearl Harbor as a coaling station and repairing of its ships Thus the ties were drawing closer still The reciprocity treaties were a great stimulus to the Hawaiian industry particularly the production of sugar and trade between Hawaii and the west coast of the United States Sugar production increased nearly five fold from 1877 to1887 and doubled again in the next 10 years Hawaii enjoyed a period of phenomenal
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