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The process of labor-management bargaining has evolved since its beginning in the early years of labor negotiations Since the parties involved in collective bargaining are negotiating a formal contract that both are to be bound by there are many stresses and tensions that permeate the process Most early negotiations were filled with drama and emotionalism The struggle has continued today to move toward a more rational process whereby negotiations are conducted and settled on the facts and more concrete quantitative arguments In pursuit of this goal there are strategies and tactics that can be utilized by both management and unionized labor in order to facilitate a more reasonable contract negotiation The most beneficial tactics-setting reasonable goals and researching facts-are employed before the negotiations even begin First of all in order to bargain better it is important to understand just what collective bargaining is James P Begin and Edwin F Beal define collective bargaining as part of an Industrial Relations System The system of relations consists of 1 the people who head the organizations that provide goods and services to society 2 the people who do the work and 3 the governmental organizations that maintain the society Under capitalism workers are relatively free to sell their own labor and withhold it at will Begin James P Beal Edwin F 3 This forms a free-will contract in which the employer and employee must decide the terms of employment Begin Beal 3 This provides the basis for the industrial relations system Before judicial regulations were enacted as a framework for negotiations the worker and the employer could enter into a verbal contract that would suffice However as workers organized themselves into formal labor organizations and elected members to represent them more formal contracts were needed The movement of collective bargaining toward a matter of national policy began in 1935 with the enactment of the Wagner Act This act pronounced two basic principles 1 employees were to be
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