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Word Count: 2,236
Everyone knows that we use language for a variety of purposes forcommunication in the broadest sense to convey to others what we have inour minds not only information but also thoughts feelings desiresand intentions to establish and maintain human relationships and gainthe sympathy and support to others to carry on conversations bothtrivial and serious to obtain goods and services and to get thingsdone in short to carry on neatly all the ordinary and extraordinarybusiness of life However foreign language learners who venture to puttheir knowledge into practice often run into communication problems dueto a deficient foreign language vocabulary store The strategies whichthey employ to solve these linguistic problems are generally know ascommunication strategies CS Quote from Problems and solutions inthe classification of compensatory strategies Conscious communicationstrategies are used by an individual to overcome the crisis which occurswhen language structures are inadequate to convey the individualsthought Tarone 1997 p195 Language problems and difficulties are asalient part of communication in a L2 and problem-management occurs atseveral levels No wonder communication strategies seen as thelanguage devices used to handle communication problems have been thetarget of much research during the past two decadesIt is believed that learners can improve communicative proficiency bydeveloping an ability to use specific communication strategies thatenable them to compensate for their target language deficiencyCommunication strategies are generally subdivided into a avoidance orreduction strategies used by the speaker who give up part of hismessage and b achievement strategies which speaker employs to reachhis originally intended goal The latter have been further subdividedinto retrieval strategies and compensatory strategiesThe following categories were classified as achievement strategieshelp-seeking modified interaction modified output time-gainingmaintenance and self-solving strategies The help-seeking strategieswere of two types an appeal for help and asking for repetition Theformer was used when seeking an interlocutors assistance in solvingproblems caused by the lack of target language knowledge The latter wasused when the participant did not hear or understand what the partnerhad said The modified interaction strategy was the process
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