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Discuss the respective contribution of neo-functionalism and intergovernmentalism to an understanding of the dynamic forces of European integration Throughout History several ideas have been presented with regards to creating European political and economic integration - From Sully in the late 17th Century proposing a 66 member senate inclusive of and representing 15 States to Count Coudenhove-Kalergis recent idea of a pan-Europa in the 1930s The two recent notions of neo-functionalism and intergovernmentalism have been influential factors throughout the development of the modern day European community Many theorists such as Ernst Haas neo-functionalism and Andrew Moravcsik intergovernmentalism have argued their cases for both these forces and the benefits Europe would receive with them but how have they affected European relations during the past century In the past attempts to theorize the development of the European Union have been grounded in the work of political scientists In particular international relations theory has produced the most enduring methodological and theoretical tools in the form of the concepts of neo-functionalism Haas 1958 and intergovernmentalism Koravcsik 1991 1993 A central controversy for each of these approaches concerns the role of political institutions in shaping the development of the European Union The decline of the European Political Community during the 1950s sparked off a search for a less ambitious European system The federalist system applied during the early 1950s was eventually replaced by a functionalist and later a neo-functionalist system in Europe This meant that a more gradual sector-by-sector approach to European integration had been adopted Treaties such as the Coal Steel Treaty which set up the European Coal Steel community including France Germany Italy Holland Belgium and Luxembourg in April 1951 was replaced by the Atomic Energy Treaty March 1957 Wincott More Shaw 1995 described this system of neo-functionalism and the effect it had Neo-functionalism predicted a more or less automatic transfer of sovereignty from the states to the European Community For neo-functionalists
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