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1879-1953 Russian revolutionary head of the USSR 1924-53 A Georgian cobblers son named Dzhugashvili he joined the Social-Democratic party while a seminarian and soon became a professional revolutionary In the 1903 party split see BOLSHEVISM AND MENSHEVISM he sided with LENIN Stalin attended party congresses abroad and worked in the Georgian party press In 1912 he went to St Petersburg where he was elected to the partys central committee About this time he took the name Stalin man of steel His sixth arrest 1913 led to four years of Siberian exile After the RUSSIAN REVOLUTION of March 1917 he joined the editorial board of the party paper Pravda When the Bolsheviks took power Nov 1917 he became peoples commissar of nationalities He also played an important administrative role in the civil war 1918-20 In 1922 Stalin was made general secretary of the party Lenin before he died in 1924 wrote a testament urging Stalins removal from the post because of his arbitrary conduct but in the struggle to succeed Lenin Stalin was victorious By 1927 he had discarded his erstwhile allies BUKHARIN KAMENEV and ZINOVIEV in 1929 TROTSKY his major rival for the succession was exiled from the USSR Forcible agricultural collectivization and breakneck industrialization began in 1928 The state instead of withering away as Marx had foreseen was glorified Nationalism was revived as socialism in one country The military was reorganized along czarist lines Conservatism permeated official policy on art education and the family Political repression and terror reached a height in the 1930s In a public trial Bukharin Kamenev Zinoviev and
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