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Cryogenics and the Future Cryogenics is a study that is of great importance to the human race andhas been a major project for engineers for the last 100 years Cryogenics which isderived from the Greek word kryos meaning Icy Cold is the study of matter atlow temperatures However low is not even the right word for the temperatures involved incryogenics seeing as the highest temperature dealt with in cryogenics is 100 C -148 Fand the lowest temperature used is the unattainable temperature -27315 C -45967 FAlso when speaking of cryogenics the terms Celsius and Fahrenheit are rarely usedInstead scientists use a different measurement called the Kelvin K The Kelvin scale forCryogenics goes from 173 K to a fraction of a Kelvin above absolute zero There are alsotwo main sciences used in cryogenics and they are Superconductivity and Superfluidity Cryogenics first came about in 1877 when a Swiss Physicist named RasulPictet and a French Engineer named Louis P Cailletet liquefied oxygen for the first timeCailletet created liquid oxygen in his lab using a process known as adiabatic expansionwhich is a thermodynamic process in which the temperature of a gas is expandedwithout adding or extracting heat from the gas or the surrounding systemVance 26At the same time Pictet used the Joule-Thompson Effect a thermodynamicprocess that states that the temperature of a fluid is reduced in a processinvolving expansion below a certain temperature and pressureMcClintock 4 AfterCailletet and Pictet a third method known as cascading was developed by Karol SOlszewski and Zygmut von Wroblewski in Poland At this point in history Oxygen was nowable to be liquefied at 90 K then soon after liquid Nitrogen was obtained at 77 K andbecause of these advancements scientist all over the world began competing in a race tolower the temperature of matter to Absolute Zero 0 K Vance 1-10 Then in 1898 James DeWar mad a major advance when he succeeded inliquifying hydrogen at 20 K The reason this advance was
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