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T-1s T-1s are the backbone of digital service today A T-1 is a standards-based transmission format It processes voice or data digital signals over telephone facilities Many businesses may use a T-1 to connect their PBX system to the public switched network to bridging or routing between LAN networks or as transmission devices between microwave stations T-1s are popular for several reasons One being that a T-1s circuit size It can make 24 communication channels on one circuit A second reason being that smaller trunk groups can be configured on a single T-1 Basic T-1 technology is converting analog waves to digital and back to analog A voice that is being spoken creates an analog sound wave and the telephone creates an electrical representation of the analog waves When the pitch or frequency would change the electrical current would change accordingly A conversion or coding is necessary to convert the analog sound waves to digital In order to convert analog waves to digital samples are extracted from the analog waves The samples of analog waves are taken about 8000 times every second which is coded into a 8-bit word also known as a byte This procedure is executed by pulse code modulator PCM and codec which is a circuit chip The PCM and codec do the actual conversion from analog to digital and back to analog again T-1 lines are improving as time passes on A T-1 system can be produced from analog voice circuits 24 analog voice circuits would need to be converted into a digital signal The digital signal would then need to be multiplexed onto a single four-wire T-1 or span The addition of paired wires to support the transmission is called pair gain and the reduction of paired wires is called pair reduction One pair is used for receiving voice or data on the other hand the other pair is used for the transmission of voice
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