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VOLCANOES Question 15 What is a Volcano Of the two major types of Volcanoes andestic and basaltic the two typical volcanoes begin life when a mass of low-density magma forces its way to the surface When the density of the rising magma is the same as that of the surrounding rock it gathers in a magma chamber Any rise in pressure in the chamber may now push the magma upwards through cracks in the overlying rock As the magma traveling up a crack approaches the surface the pressure from the overlying rocks reduces gases are released from the magma and expand so suddenly that an explosion rips open a funnel shaped vent called a diatreme to the surface The lava that blasts out of the vent then cools to form cinders ash and dust - all referred to as Tephra A ring of tephra collects around the vent and as the eruption subsides this blocks up the diatreme Question 25 Where have Volcanoes erupted Volcanoes have erupted in many different places Volcanoes have erupted in The Philippines Java Papua New Guinea Hawaii and many other places The Ring of Fire located around the Pacific Ocean is 20 or so places with active volcanoes in them joined by one big imaginary line that forms a circle or Ring when scaled down to the size on a map Question 35 How do people cope with Eruptions In times when the chips are down and there are no signs of hope communities stick together in the time of need In places like Papua New Guinea people move to other close by communities on the island that arent effected by the eruption The inhabitants of that community gladly welcome them and dont mind if they stay with them until the eruption calms down and they can go back to their own community Question 45 How common are
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