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Word Count: 508
Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of Earths atmosphere and oceans and its projected continuation In the last 100 years Earths average surface temperature increased by about 08 C 14F with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades Warming of the climate system is unequivocal and scientists are more than 90 certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuels These findings are recognized by the national science academies of all the major industrialized countries An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation and a probable expansion of subtropical deserts Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing retreat of glaciers permafrost and sea ice Other likely effects of the warming include more frequent occurrence of extreme weather events including heat waves droughts and heavy rainfall events species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes and changes in agricultural yields Warming and related changes will vary from region to region around the globe with projections being more robust in some areas than others In a 4C world the limits for human adaptation are likely to be exceeded in many parts of the world while the limits for adaptation for natural systems would largely be exceeded throughout the world Hence the ecosystem services upon which human livelihoods depend would not be preservedEvidence for warming of the climate system includes observed increases in global average air and ocean temperatures widespread melting of snow and ice and rising global average sea levelExternal forcing refers to processes external to the climate system though not necessarily external to Earth that influence climate Climate responds to several types of external forcing such as radiative forcing due to changes in atmospheric composition mainly greenhouse gas concentrations changes in solar luminosity volcanic eruptions
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