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Although at first sight the DSM-IV classification system appears to provide clinicians with a useful framework of which to view their clients on closer inspection however the picture is somewhat less satisfactory Criticisms of the system range from Wakefields 1997 analysis that psychological presentation ranges from problems of living to harmful dysfunction through to Livesley Schroeder Jangs 1994 counter-argument that evidence of discontinuity between different diagnoses and normality would support the DSMs proposal of distinct diagnostic categories Since these issues involved are quite distinct both these points of view are presented in relation to a cause and consequence debate Finally conclusions are reflected in terms of the classification of the impulse control disorders not else where specified DSM-IV 1996 Particularly discussion is given to the sub category of Kleptomania Criticisms of DSM -IV classification The four major criticisms of DSM -IV classification system are 1 that categories lack independence 2 the principles underlying them are diverse 3 they are too heterogeneous and 4 the reliability consistency and conceptual validity correctness Wakefield 1997 of diagnosis is too low to be of any value This leads to Wakefields 1997 argument that the diagnostic criteria of the DSM encompasses too many conditions that do not adequately reflect a true indication of one psychological disorder Wakefield 1997 further argues that a pattern labelled harmful dysfunction results in confusion between boundaries along the continuum of disorder and non-disorder Harmful dysfunction results from a lack of consistency clarification or identification of quite simply what should be diagnosed where The harm in this case can result in negative evaluation of an undesirable outcome that is placed within a specific diagnostic category According to the harmful dysfunction analysis a disorder only exists where there is a clear and identifiable internal mechanism resulting in harm to the individual However it becomes apparent that when using the DSM as a major diagnostic criteria in assessment that many
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