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Unless we accept the claim that Lenins coup dtat gave birth to an entirelynew state and indeed to a new era in the history of mankind we mustrecognize in todays Soviet Union the old empire of the Russiansthe onlyempire that survived into the mid 1980s Luttwak 1In their Communist Manifesto of 1848 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engelsapplied the term communism to a final stage of socialism in which all classdifferences would disappear and humankind would live in harmony Marx andEngels claimed to have discovered a scientific approach to socialism basedon the laws of history They declared that the course of history wasdetermined by the clash of opposing forces rooted in the economic systemand the ownership of property Just as the feudal system had given way tocapitalism so in time capitalism would give way to socialism The classstruggle of the future would be between the bourgeoisie who were thecapitalist employers and the proletariat who were the workers Thestruggle would end according to Marx in the socialist revolution and theattainment of full communism Groilers EncyclopediaSocialism of which Marxism-Leninism is a takeoff originated in the WestDesigned in France and Germany it was brought into Russia in the middle ofthe nineteenth century and promptly attracted support among the countryseducated public-minded elite who at that time were called intelligentsiaPipes 21 After Revolution broke out over Europe in 1848 the modernworking class appeared on the scene as a major historical force HoweverRussia remained out of the changes that Europe was experiencing As asocialist movement and inclination the Russian Social-Democratic Partycontinued the traditions of all the Russian Revolutions of the past withthe goal of conquering political freedom Daniels 7As early as 1894 when he was twenty-four Lenin had become a revolutionaryagitator and a convinced Marxist He exhibited his new faith and hispolemical talents in a diatribe of that year against the peasant-orientedsocialism of the Populists led by NK Mikhiaiovsky Wren 3While Marxism had been winning adherents among the Russian revolutionaryintelligentsia for more
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