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The Self-strengthening Movement 1860-1894 was also named Yang-Wu Yun-Tung by the Marxist historians It is because the movement did not strengthen China and it depended too much on the foreigners All the reform programmes just imitated the West In the upcoming paragraphs we are going to discuss the causes and failure of it and how its failure affected China up to 1912 It has been said that the Self-Strengthening Movement was a response to the West The repeated defeats which China suffered from the 1st and 2nd Anglo Chinese Wars convinced the Qing Court Officials that the western powers were not barbarians Instead their weapons were very superior And the foreign powers have been kept seeking advantages and privileges from China As a result China has to strengthen herself in order to resist foreign aggressions To a large extent it explains why the Self-strengthening Movement is military oriented In the 1860s western menace was not so great as it seemed to be As a matter of fact the signing of the peace treaties and the peaceful withdrawal of army from Peking showed that the foreign powers had no intention of conquering whole China They even helped China to suppress the internal rebellions by sending the Ever-victorious Army The well organized structure and hi-tech weapons fascinated the Chinese officials such as Li Hongzhang one of the Movement leaders Convincing the Chinese should carry out military reforms Moreover the foreign powers adopted to co-operative foreign policy at the mean time The sincerity of the western diplomats in China also showed the friendliness of the foreigners For example Alcock Burlingame and Robert Hart It helped to ease the misunderstanding between China and the west The Self-strengthening Movement was also a response to internal rebellion It is undeniable that the domestic rebellions were serious threat to the Qing Dynasty By 1860 the domestic rebellions had come to a high tide with the advance of the
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